General Information about Cement
Cement and concrete are commonly thought to be the same thing, but they are very different. As part of a Group that manufactures both, it is important that we inform you of the difference. Indeed, cement is the key ingredient of concrete, the world’s most widely used building material. Annual global production of concrete hovers around 5 billion cubic yards (1.2 billion tonnes).
Before Portland Cement was discovered, natural cement was produced by burning a naturally occurring mixture of lime and clay. Since the ingredients of natural cement were mixed by nature, its properties varied as widely as the natural resources from which it was made.
The first cements were made by the Assyrians and Babylonians who used clay. The Egyptians later advanced to the discovery of lime and gypsum mortar as a binding agent for building such structures as the pyramids. The Romans finally developed a cement that produced structures of remarkable durability. The Roman Forum, the Colosseum and Roman Baths built about 2 B.C. are examples of early Roman architecture in which cement mortar was used. The secret of Roman success in making cement was traced to the mixing of slaked lime with pozzolana, a volcanic ash from Mount Vesuvius. This process produced a cement capable of hardening with the addition of water. During the Middle Ages, this art was lost and it was not until the scientific spirit of inquiry was revived that the secret of Hydraulic Cement – cement that will harden on addition of water – was rediscovered.
Between 1756 to 1830, many men experimented with the manufacture of cement. Most renowned are John Smeaton, a British engineer, who from his trials was able to rebuild the Eddystone Lighthouse in England; L.J. Vicat and Lessage in France; and Joseph Parker and James Frost in England.
In 1824, Joseph Aspdin, a bricklayer and mason in Leeds, England, took out a patent on a hydraulic cement that he called Portland Cement, as its colour resembled the stone quarried on the Isle of Portland off the British Coast. Aspdin’s method involved the careful proportioning of limestone and clay, pulverizing them, and burning the mixture (in his kitchen stove) into clinker, which was then ground into finished cement.
Portland Cement today is a predetermined and carefully proportioned chemical combination of calcium, silicon, iron and aluminium. Natural cement gave way to Portland Cement, (which is made by TCL Group’s Business Units – Arawak Cement Company Limited, Caribbean Cement Company Limited and Trinidad Cement Limited) which is a predictable, known product of consistently high quality.
TGI Portland-Pozzolan Cement
- Greater durability and longevity
- Improved workability
- Reduced risk of cracking
ARAWAK CEMENT ECO PLUS (Portland Limestone Cement)
Arawak Eco Plus is a Portland Limestone Cement (PLC). This generic type of cement is produced in accordance with ASTM C 595 standard for Type IL cement. Limestone is a key component of Arawak Eco Plus and has concrete strengthening properties to improve durability, workability of concrete & mortar, early compressive strength, comparable or better latter days strength to Portland cement, heat or hydration.
PLC has excellent concrete finishing properties, lower bleeding and slump loss, excellent response with SCM’s and chemical admixtures. PLC clearly hydrates with synergies contributed by limestone that enables enhanced setting and strength performance.
Limestone has been used in cement manufacturing for over 25 years in Europe and is now being used in Canada and the Caribbean. PLC is not new to the construction industry as it has been used successfully in a variety of applications and exposure conditions.
Benefits of Arawak Eco Plus
1. Resistance to certain types of mild acids
Concrete made with Arawak Eco Plus has improved permeability, the sorptivity and the chloride permeability are similar to pure cement concrete
2. Easy Workability & excellent concrete finishing properties
Arawak Eco Plus is a fine quality cement which produces a more cohesive quality mortar which results in easy and fast application of concrete, and also excellent concrete finishing properties.
3. Higher “Early Strength”
Due to the addition of limestone in Arawak Eco Plus, concrete made with this cement has a higher early strength than ordinary Portland cement and comparable or better latter days strength.
4. Heat of Hydration Efficiency
The risk of thermal cracking is reduced due to the fact that limestone is not inert, but contributes to hydration both physically and chemically
5. Improves Environmental Footprint
The use of limestone in the manufacturing of Arawak Eco Plus significantly reduces carbon footprint and saves energy. It involves delivering sustainable building material which positively contributes to the welfare of society and to the environment.
6. Improved performance in concrete
- Lower resistance to freezing and thawing
- Chloride permeability and diffusion
- Heat of hydration
- AAR potential
- Shrinkage and creep
- Reduce carbonation depth and the total porosity of mortar
- Better interaction with SCM’s
- Optimum protection against rebar corrosion
7. Reduced Alkali-Aggregate Reaction
When concrete is produced with potentially reactive aggregates, the use of Arawak Eco Plus reduces the risk of micro-cracks and premature hardening of the cement paste.
TCL has been producing American Petroleum Institute Spec 10A Monogrammed Class G (Oilwell) cement since 1996. It is highly rated for its consistency and reliability.
Our Class G cement has three main uses within the industry:
- Protects and seals the wellbore, thus preventing water penetration and immobilizing of the casing
- Seals areas where there is a reduction of flow within the well
- Used for plugging wells for abandonment
Our Class G Cement meets and exceeds international Class G specifications and our product testing was carried out by independent laboratories. Our product is as good as that produced by any international competitor and undergoes internal laboratory testing (LAS-003 accredited) ISO/IEC 17025:2005. We are also Environment Management System accredited (ISO 14001:2004) and Quality Management System accredited (ISO 9001:2008).
Quality Benefits of Class G Cement:
- High pressure resistance
- High temperature resistance
- Low free fluids for cement integrity and durability
- High sulphate resistance for harsh environmental conditions
- Consistent quality for a slurry design portability
- Excellent retarder response for higher economic benefit in mix design